Source Card Options (CO2e)

This card allows the user to control sources and/or sinks of mass and energy by defining time-varying sources.  By definition, sinks are negative sources, and sources refer to an influx of mass or energy into a node.  Sources can be specified for interior or boundary nodes and are functionally analogous to Neumann type boundary conditions.  Sources applied to inactive nodes are not recognized.  Sources are time varying; however, unlike boundary conditions, multiple sources may be applied to a node during the same time period.  The simulator controls time steps to agree with time transitions in sources.

Sinks withdraw mass from a node.  The physical properties of the fluids withdrawn through sinks equal the properties of the fluids of the node.

Sources inject mass into a node.  The physical properties for fluids injected through sources are computed from the specified input parameters.

Time variations of sources are controlled through declaring multiple source times. All Source Time inputs are referenced against the Initial Time specified in the Solution Control card or obtained from a restart file.  A source declared with a single Source Time implies that the source is time invariant and the specified Source Time represents the start time for the source.  Prior to the start time the source will be zero, and from the start time to execution completion the source will be as specified.  If a source is declared with multiple Source Times, then the first time listed equals the start time, the last time listed equals the stop time, and the intermediate times are transition points.  For simulation times outside of the start and stop time limits, zero source conditions apply.  For simulation times between two Source Times, linear interpolation of the sources is applied.  Step source changes can be simulated by defining duplicate Source Times the first time would indicate the completion of the previous source, and the second time would indicate the start of the new source.  At the completion of the step source, another set of duplicate Source Time declarations would be used.  Step sources are convenient methods to introduce slugs of fluids or solute into an interior node. The following source type options can be specified in the Source Card:

Energy sources

can be declared in terms of power or power per unit node volume (i.e., Power Density).

Energy source types
  1. Power density source
  2. Power source

Aqueous sources

can be declared in terms of volumetric or mass  rates.

Aqueous source types
  1. Aqueous volumetric source

  2. Aqueous mass source

Aqueous sources additionally require the specification of the dissolved concentrations of CO2 and salt. Specified concentrations are verified via the flash routines.

Aqueous-Salt Source Options
  • Aqueous-Salt concentration

  • Aqueous-Salt relative saturation

  • Aqueous-Salt mass fraction

  • Aqueous-Salt molality

Aqueous-CO2 Source Options
  • Aqueous-CO2 concentration

  • Aqueous-CO2 mass fraction

  • Aqueous-CO2 relative saturation

Gas sources

can be declared in terms of volumetric or mass rates.

Gas source types
  1. Gas volumetric source
  2. Gas mass source

Gas sources additionally require the specification of the water-vapor concentration.

Water-vapor Source Option
  • Water-vapor gas relative humidity
  • Water-vapor gas mass fraction

Salt sources

can be associated with an aqueous source or specified directly in terms of a mass rate or mass rate per unit node volume (i.e., Density Rate).

Salt source types
  1. Salt density source
  2. Salt source




Sources can vary over time between sources and sinks. Aqueous and gas sinks removed dissolved components (e.g., CO2, salt, water vapor) according to nodal concentrations.


The rates specified in a Source card are for a single node. Therefore, if a source is applied over several nodes, the total aqueous mass rate of injection/withdrawal should be divided between these nodes.


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